Evidence Synthesis Methods,Scoping Review Process,Meta-Ethnography in Research


Evidence synthesis encompasses a wide range of methodologies beyond systematic reviews and meta-analyses, each suited to different research questions and evidence types. This guide introduces various evidence synthesis methods, highlighting their purposes, applications, and how they complement the broader goals of evidence-based practice in healthcare and research. By exploring these diverse methodologies, Epitech Research aims to empower researchers, healthcare professionals, and policy-makers with the tools necessary for comprehensive and informed decision-making.

Overview of Evidence Synthesis Methods

Scoping Reviews

Definition and Purpose

Scoping reviews aim to map the key concepts, types of evidence, and gaps in research related to a specific question or area. They are particularly useful for fields that have not been comprehensively reviewed before or where the literature is complex and varied.

Key Steps

  • Formulating a clear research question
  • Identifying relevant studies
  • Selecting studies based on predefined criteria
  • Charting the data and summarizing findings

Narrative Synthesis

Definition and Purpose

Narrative synthesis is used to synthesize findings from multiple studies qualitatively. It involves narratively summarizing and explaining the relationships, patterns, and findings within the literature, often used in disciplines where quantitative synthesis is not feasible.

Key Steps

  • Developing a theory of how the interventions work, why, and for whom
  • Developing a preliminary synthesis of findings of included studies
  • Exploring relationships within and between studies
  • Assessing the robustness of the synthesis


Definition and Purpose

Meta-ethnography is a qualitative technique that systematically interprets and synthesizes qualitative research findings, aiming to create new conceptual understandings and theories.

Key Steps

  • Selecting qualitative research articles that explore similar topics
  • Reading the studies repeatedly to understand their core concepts
  • Translating the concepts from one study to another
  • Synthesizing translations to generate a new interpretation

Challenges and Solutions in Evidence Synthesis Methods

Conducting evidence synthesis using these diverse methodologies presents unique challenges, such as integrating findings from qualitatively different studies and managing the vast scope of literature. Solutions include employing rigorous methodological frameworks, utilizing software tools for qualitative data analysis, and engaging in multidisciplinary collaboration to enhance the synthesis process.


The field of evidence synthesis is rich with methodologies designed to tackle a wide array of research questions. Understanding and applying these methods appropriately can significantly enhance the impact of research on healthcare practice and policy. For more detailed insights into systematic reviews and meta-analyses, visit our comprehensive guide.

Evidence Synthesis MethodsMeta-Ethnography in ResearchScoping Review Process